1. The Roman Coliseum
The Colosseum is seemingly the most remarkable building of the Roman Empire and one of the must-see Monuments of Rome, primarily known as the Flavian Amphitheater. Emperor Vespasian, the founder of the Flavian dynasty, began the construction of the Coliseum in 72 AD. It was completed in AD 80, a year after Vespasian’s death.
The Coliseum could accommodate about 55,000 spectators entering through 80 entrances. It has four floors; the upper one contained seats for low classes and women. It was in use for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunting, hangings, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology.
An earthquake in 847 damaged the south side of the Coliseum including the marble cladding. Still, it is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome.
2. The Pantheon of Agrippa
The Pantheon of Agrippa is a circular temple built at the beginning of the Roman Empire, dedicated to all the gods. The Byzantine emperor Phocas presented it to Pope Boniface IV in 608, who transformed the Pantheon into a Christian church. It was consecrated to Sancta Maria ad Martyres, now known as Santa Maria dei Martir. Since the Renaissance, the Pantheon has been in use as a burial place. It was a cemetery for the famous Romans.
It is the best-preserved building of ancient Rome and completed in c. 125 CE in the reign of Hadrian. Its majestic dome is a lasting testimony to the genius of the Roman architects. The Pantheon has gone through many natural disasters that caused its damage; However, it has always been restored. It is certainly one of the Monuments of Rome that you will not want to miss.
3. Roman Forum
The Roman Forum is a rectangular place that enclosed by the ruins of several ancient government buildings in the core of Italy. This valley initially ran as a burial site of the ancient Romans. It then became a particularly central market for the daily affairs of the locals known as the Forum Magnum.
The forum was the center of Rome in age, in political, legal, religious and commercial aspects. It also witnessed the most significant moments that have been marked over the centuries. Augustus was crowned emperor here. Also, the Senate decided on war or peace in this area. There were also open discussions on social issues and almost everything else. Everyone used this vibrant center, even the people from nearby villages.
4. Catacombs of Rome
The Catacombs of Rome are a series of ancient mausoleums and underground cemetery, surely one of the monuments of Rome that attract the most attention. There were at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades. They are known for their Christian burials, either in separate catacombs or mixed, people of all the Roman religions are buried in them, beginning in the 2nd century AD mainly as a response to overcrowding and shortage of land. These were first made with the corpse embalmed, wrapped in linen and then buried. Other ancient Romans, however, believed in cremation. The ashes of the cremated body kept in containers.
It was believed that the catacombs existed from the first stage of the second century and used until the ninth century. Then the bodies were removed and placed outside the walls of the city of Rome for reasons related to sanitation and hygiene. It has believed that the relics of Paul and Peter were buried in the catacombs during the third century. Each of the compartments of the catacombs was richly adorned with Christian emblems such as fish, anchors, pigeons, and vines. Although some areas were covered with moss and mildews, the catacombs still look astounding.
5. Trevi Fountain
The Trevi Fountain of the Baroque in Rome designed by Italian architect Nicola Salvi and completed by Pietro Bracci. The history of this fountain dates back to the times of Emperor Augustus. According to legend, it was a mysterious maiden who indicated to General Agrippa, the location of the spring on the outskirts of Rome. To bring water to the city, Agrippa built an aqueduct, which in honor of the maiden was called Aqua Virgo, it served Rome for more than 400 years.
Today the fountain is famous all over the world and visited by thousands of tourists every day to throw a coin back with the intention of returning to the Eternal City. Coins are purportedly meant to be thrown using the right hand over the left shoulder. It is one of the Monuments of Rome that you will not want to miss.
6. Baths of Caracalla
The Caracalla baths were private baths and bathrooms for the public. These bathrooms were accessible to all, poor, rich, men, women, youth and adults. They were not only used for bathing. The place also has a conference room with libraries, shops, gardens, terraces, reception rooms, changing rooms, saunas, and massage rooms. It was a large complex with an area of 120,000 square meters that could accommodate 1600 guests. It was built with red bricks and was richly decorated with beautiful frescoes and mosaics. The best known is the colorful collection of the athlete. This collection was in the exhibit at the Vatican Museums.
Emperor Septimius commissioned the construction but were not completed during his reign. After his death, his son took over the supervision of building construction. There were 216 finished baths and was named as Thermae Antoninianae. Over the years, this name was changed into Baños de Caracalla. Today, there is only one ruins complex that serves as a shade of the large bathhouse that it once was. However, it is one of the monuments of Rome that are worth a visit.
7. Basilica of Saint Peter
You will not always have the opportunity to get to know one of the six European micro states. The Vatican is a city – state whose territory consists of an enclave within the city of Rome. The history of Europe and the world, in one way or another, has been linked to the figure of the Pope. For all this, in the Vatican, the Catholic Church has its unique expression and a great legacy for history.
Basilica of Saint Peter is the most notable work of Renaissance architecture and the biggest church in the world. While it is not the mother church of the Catholic Church nor the Basilica of the Diocese of Rome, St. Peter’s is considered as one of the divine Catholic shrines. It has defined as “holding a unique position in the Christian world” and as “the greatest of all churches of Christendom.”
In the Vatican is not only the Basilica of St. Peter but also the Vatican Museums where Michelangelo painted the Sistine Chapel. A visit of the wonders of the Vatican will help you to experience them.